Effect of active warming during general anaesthesia on post-operative body temperature, shivering, thermal comfort, pain, nausea and vomiting in adult patients: a randomized clinical trials protocol

Özlem Şahin Akboğa, Aysel Gürkan


Background: This study aims to investigate the effects of individual and combined use of intraoperative forced-air warming and warmed intravenous and irrigation fluids on post-operative body temperature, shivering, thermal comfort, pain, nausea and vomiting in adult patients receiving general anaesthesia.

Methods: This is a randomised controlled clinical trial. A 2x2 factorial design will used in the experiment. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of four groups. We attempt to report this randomized controlled trial to comply with the spirit. The study population will consist of 120 adult patients receiving general anaesthesia at university hospitals in Turkey. After the induction of anaesthesia, the first group (n=30) will be warmed with only forced-air warming device, the second group (n=30) will receive only warmed intravenous and irrigation fluids, forced-air warming as well as warmed intravenous (IV) and irrigation fluids will be applied to the third group (n=30), the fourth group (n=30) will consist of the control group without any intervention. Blood and blood products to be applied intraoperatively to all groups will be heated to 37°C.

Conclusions: The primary outcome measures are post-operative body temperature, shivering, thermal comfort, pain, nausea and vomiting. The primary results will be subjected to a one-way analysis of variance for covariant such as amount of bleeding and volume of intraoperative fluids.

Trial registration: The trial has been registered in clinical trials: https://clinicaltrials.gov/. Registration number: NCT04907617).


General anesthesia, Hypothermia, Pain, Post-operative nausea and vomiting

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